- Design and Code rots lead to fragile, rigit and in-mobile code base. Debugging becomes difficult, estimates mount and implementing any new changes becomes difficult. Uncertainity in the code increases.
- Maintaining a test suite with a high code coverage has below benefits
1. Keeps defects under control
2. Gives us the courage to change the code in order to clean it
3. Unit tests act as code examples for your API. They are low level design documents. For e.g. The test cases helps us to know all the possible ways to call a particular API.
4. Writing tests first, makes the production code testable. To write unit tests you would have to make your functions decoupled from each other. This leads to an improved design.
A good concise guide to all the jdk7 enhancements can be found here. Some interesting ones are –
Scalable file I/O support
Many of the java.io.file methods did not scale. Requesting a large directory listing over a server could result in a hang. Large directories could also cause memory resource problems, resulting in a denial of service. The new file I/O package is implemented so that it works regardless of the file system’s size.
Watching a directory for changes
The Watch Service api allows you to register a directory for file change notifications. An application can register for creation, deletion, or modification events. This feature can be implemented using the FileVisitor API to recursively watch an entire file tree for changes. For more information, see Watching a Directory for Changes (Java Tutorial).
Oracle’s Universal Connection Pool (UCP) provides a feature called connection labeling where an application could attach arbitrary name/value pairs to a connection.By associating particular labels with particular connection states, an application can retrieve an already initialized connection from the pool and avoid the time and cost of re-initialization. The initialization varies and could include simple state re-initialization that requires method calls within the application code or database operations that require round trips over the network.
Connection labeling is application-driven and requires the application to implement an callback interface called oracle.ucp.ConnectionLabelingCallback. The callback determines whether or not a connection with a requested label already exists. If no connections exist, the interface allows current connections to be configured as required.
Inverse attribute in hibernate defines which side is responsible of the association maintenance. In a one-to-many (bidirectional) or many-to-many relationship the side having inverse=”false” (default value) has this responsibility (and will create the appropriate SQL query – insert, update or delete). Changes made to the association on the side of the inverse=”true” are not persisted in DB.
In Hibernate, only the relationship owner should maintain the relationship, and the “inverse” keyword is created to define which side is the owner to maintain the relationship.
Inverse attribute with JPA Annotations
inverse=”true” is an attribute to be specified in the hbm.xml but in JPA it is specified using the mappedBy attribute of an @OneToMany annotation.
Spring provides a mechanism through which you can plugin some code which gets executed after the transaction is complete. We need to provide an implementation of the org.springframework.transaction.support.TransactionSynchronization interface which can be registered using TransactionSynchronizationManager. This could be useful in scenario where your code does not have a control over when the transaction starts and ends. For e.g. Your service code always joins an existing transaction started by the calling method (using REQUIRED PROPAGATION LEVEL).
This post gives a brief introduction to the two oracle’s technologies for loading external data into a database tables – SQL*Loader (SQLLDR) and External Table and later provides some guidelines on when to chose what.
SQL*Loader loads data from external files into tables in the Oracle database. SQL*Loader uses two primary files: the datafile, which contains the information to be loaded, and the control file, which contains information on the format of the data, the records and fields within the file, the order in which they are to be loaded, and even, when needed, the names of the multiple files that will be used for data.
ROWID Data Type
Oracle Database uses a ROWID datatype to store the address (rowid) of every row in the database.
■ Physical rowids store the addresses of rows in ordinary tables (excluding index-organized tables), clustered tables, table partitions and subpartitions, indexes, and index partitions and subpartitions.
■ Logical rowids store the addresses of rows in index-organized tables.
A single datatype called the universal rowid, or UROWID, supports both logical and physical rowids, as well as rowids of foreign tables such as non-Oracle tables accessed through a gateway.
Java uses (or in more specific terms, throws) exceptions to notify exceptional situations in programs. Developers write try-catch blocks to handle these exceptions, or simply propagate the exceptions upwards in the call stack.
An uncaught exception is a Throwable, which is not caught by any part of the application in the call stack where the exception occurred. It has propagated through the call stack, and has arrived at the underlying thread (could be the main thread or a defined thread), without being caught. Java actually handles uncaught exceptions according to the thread in which they occur. When an uncaught exception occurs in a particular thread, Java looks for what is called an uncaught exception handler, actually an implementaiton of the interface UnCaughtExceptionHandler.
The specific procedure is as follows. When an uncaught exception occurs, the JVM does the following:
- it calls a special private method, dispatchUncaughtException(), on the Thread class in which the exception occurs;
- it then terminates the thread in which the exception occurred
The dispatchUncaughtException() method, in turn, calls the thread’s getUncaughtExceptionHandler() method to find out the appropriate uncaught exception handler to use. Normally, this will actually be the thread’s parent ThreadGroup, whose handleException() method by default will print the stack trace.
Commons http client is a library provides the client-side implementation of most of the HTTP standards and recommendations. It is mainly used while building HTTP aware client applications such as web browsers, web service clients etc.
Recently while accessing the sql server reporting services, we faced an authentication error on one of the client environments. The stacktrace found was as below
2011-08-10 03:17:12,868 INFO [http-8080-2](HTTPSender.java:192) - Unable to sendViaPost to url[http://machine-name/ReportServer/ReportService2005.asmx] org.apache.axis2.AxisFault: Transport error: 401 Error: Unauthorized at org.apache.axis2.transport.http.HTTPSender.handleResponse(HTTPSender.java:296) at org.apache.axis2.transport.http.HTTPSender.sendViaPost(HTTPSender.java:190) at org.apache.axis2.transport.http.HTTPSender.send(HTTPSender.java:75) at org.apache.axis2.transport.http.CommonsHTTPTransportSender.writeMessageWithCommons(CommonsHTTPTransportSender.java:371) at org.apache.axis2.transport.http.CommonsHTTPTransportSender.invoke(CommonsHTTPTransportSender.java:209) at org.apache.axis2.engine.AxisEngine.send(AxisEngine.java:448) at org.apache.axis2.description.OutInAxisOperationClient.send(OutInAxisOperation.java:401) at org.apache.axis2.description.OutInAxisOperationClient.executeImpl(OutInAxisOperation.java:228) at org.apache.axis2.client.OperationClient.execute(OperationClient.java:163)